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Improving The Students’ Writing Skills Through Fishbone Method

Written By Skripsi ku on Tuesday, 8 October 2013 | 18:14

Skripsi: Improving The Students’ Writing Skills Through Fishbone Method At The Second Year Students Of Smk Muhammadiyah 2 Bontoala Makassar

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English is the first foreign language in Indonesia, which is taught from elementary level to university level. English is also intensively used in international communication, in written as well as in spoken communication. In addition, many books of science, technology, art and other published issues are written in English. In English language, there are integrated skills to be mastered such as: speaking, listening, reading and writing. As haycraft states (1978; 8) that there are various skills in mastering language: respective skill, listening (understanding the spoken language), reading (understanding the written language), and productive skills-speaking and writing. 
In related to the written language, writing is a means of communicating ideas and information which are related to the thinking process and expression of ideas in written form. It is important for the students to express their ideas and opinions. Writing is a complex activity. There are several process, mental and physical being carrier at the same time. Morsey in Tarigan (1986; 4) states that writing is used by educated people to persuade and influence other people. The objectives like those can be received well by the people who can arrange their ideas and express them clearly.
The responsibility lies on the teacher's shoulders to enhance their students' abilities to express themselves effectively. In order for students to communicate well they need to have to expand their cognitive academic language proficiency level. It contains the genres of power that leads to success. It is important for students to learn how to think critically and creatively. It is the teacher's responsibility to initiate this thought process. Writing improves a person's ability to think concisely and clearly. Students learn to organize their ideas in a cohesive and flowing manner.
    As teachers, we are given the responsibility of improving and enhancing students' writing, in both content and in organization.  In order for these children to succeed, they need to be equipped and well aware of the genres of power which rule the world. Whether oral or written, the different types of genres are a child's key to power, prestige and priviledge. By developing these styles of writing, a child is empowered to use this key to unlock any door that leads to success. Writing is a transitory verb, therefore, one should not just teach writing, but teaches to write something. For example, to have children succeed in describing anything, they need to be taught to write good descriptive form of language.
To teach the students how to write easily and creatively, there are many methods that can be used. Fishbone method or usually known as cause and effect diagram or Ishikawa diagram, a method developed by Kaoru Ishikawa (1986), is one of methods in teaching writing that may support the expected situation. This method can help the students to determine the cause and effect of one problem statement by using a model like a skeleton of a fish. It can be very enjoyable for students to be creatively in writing.
As with any brilliant idea, the basic foundation of the Fishbone is extremely simple and practical. Used and understood even by non-specialists, the Cause and Effect diagram is used as a team brainstorming tool to provoke, tease and evoke more and more ideas and issues (causes) to be captured that can go into any particular conclusion (effect) being reached. When finished, after a few iterations of analyses, this problem management diagram identifies and explains in a graphical format all the possible causes of a particular effect. All the possible causes are depicted at various levels of detail in connected branches. The level of detail increases as the branch goes outward, which means that an outer branch is a cause of the inner branch that it is attached to. This means that the outermost branches indicate the root causes of the problem.
The process of creating fishbone diagram helps the student focus on the topic, requires the student to review what they already know in order to organize that knowledge, and helps the student to monitor their growing comprehension of the topic. It also helps point out the areas where the student must investigate more (where the fishbone is difficult to fill out).

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